We have emphasized in previous articles that there have been many issues identified with biodiesel and biodiesel blends (articles linked below
). These issues were magnified in the state of Minnesota in the winter of 2009-2010. Due to these issues very extensive research, development and testing has been done by Amalgamated, Inc.
in conjunction with full service petroleum testing laboratory Research Laboratories, Inc.
As biodiesel fuels continue to grow in importance and availability, user and supplier long term storage and handling issues will continue to increase unless appropriate action is taken. Wintertime operability characteristics and their resulting effects are no exception.
To begin with, biodiesel fuels can be produced from a variety of feedstock. These include traditionally processed soybean oil, distilled soybean oil, canola oil, tallow oil, palm oil and algae oil based biodiesel fuels as well as others. However, the physical properties and product specifications of the finished biodiesel fuels for each will vary substantially depending on the feedstock and the processing methods used. Traditional winterization additives compounded with Cold Flow Improvers, Cold Filter Plug Point (CFPP) Improvers, Pour Point Depressants, and Wax Crystal Modifiers, etc. do not function the same (if at all) when added to B100 (100%) biodiesel. And, many of these traditional diesel additives do not provide even acceptable protection when added to biodiesel fuel blends (B-2, B-5, B-10, B-11, B-20, etc.).
The BIODIESEL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT STUDIES
I. KEROSENE BLENDING AND BIODIESEL STUDY
This one study began by testing Kerosene (K-1) with a variety of biodiesel sources. A 95% K-1 fuel with 5% biodiesel(B-5) content was studied to see if biodiesel stayed in solution at extreme temperature conditions (-40 degrees F) over an extended period of time (14 days) in kerosene. The biodiesel fuel sources used for the study were traditionally processed soybean oil, distilled soybean oil, canola oil, tallow oil, and palm oil biodiesel fuels. At the same time, testing was done to develop specific fuel additives that would prevent or limit precipitation of the biodiesel contents during cold weather.
To check for suspension of the biodiesel content in the kerosene a NEW cold flow property test was used to monitor the suspension of wax crystals and solidified biodiesel throughout a sample. The NEW cold flow property test, called The Wax Dispersing Filterability Test
), examines the suspension of wax crystals at temperatures of 10F or more degrees below the diesel fuel?s (or biodiesel blend?s) original cloud point. This new laboratory test checks for precipitated paraffin wax (& bio) in 400ml of a fuel sample by comparing the fuel mixture Cloud Point of the "Top" 100ml of the fuel sample to the Cloud Point of the "Bottom" 100ml of the fuel mixture sample.
Results of the study showed that over the 14-day period of time in storage at the extreme temperatures the traditional soy did not precipitate out of the 95% K-1 fuel. However, the distilled soy biodiesel did show some fall out. The canola biodiesel product showed minor precipitation out of the 95% K-1 fuel blend during the same time period at the extreme temperatures. The tallow and palm oil biodiesel products both showed significant precipitation out of the 95% K-1 fuels at all time periods tested at the extreme temperatures.
During the study the custom formulated additives developed by Amalgamated, Inc. prevented precipitation of the traditional and distilled soy biodiesel products as well as the canola biodiesel product and the tallow biodiesel products. The palm oil biodiesel product was the most difficult to work with but the custom formulated additives Amalgamated, Inc. developed substantially reduced the precipitation of the product at extremely low temperatures over the 14-day test period.
An example of the B-5 Tallow biodiesel in 95% Kerosene without additive after 24 hours at minus 40 degrees F and with Amalgamated, Inc. additive at minus 40 degrees F after 14 days.
We feel strongly that biodiesel is the fuel for now and the fuel for future. The past three winter seasons have demonstrated how biodiesel manufacturers using Amalgamated, Inc.
winter additives may use any biodiesel feedstock. Our unique technologies for biodiesel winterization additives permit those finished biodiesel products to be blended and used effectively in nearly all climatic conditions. The Amalgamated, Inc.
custom formulated additives will allow the fuel producers, marketers, suppliers and consumers of biodiesel products in 95% K-1 blends to prevent or greatly minimize precipitation over long periods of storage even at extremely low temperatures. The Wax Dispersancy Test Data verifies the suspension benefits achievable with use of the Amalgamated, Inc.
custom formulated additives in the B-5 biodiesel K-1 blends. Data can be mailed upon request. Contact us
II. B-100 and ITS EFFECTS on WINTERIZATION of DIESEL FUEL STUDY
As has been stated in previous articles, it has been well known that all diesel fuels are not the same. It has also been well known and documented that diesel fuel additives for winterization and premium performance react differently to various diesel fuels. Throw in the fact now that there are multiple sources and processes being used to make different types of biodiesel and problems were bound to escalate. Add in unknown long-term storage and handling issues and problems will continue to increase unless appropriate action is taken. Wintertime operability characteristics of B-100 and their resulting effects on biodiesel blends of diesel fuel are no exception.
This study tries to point out the differences, difficulties and effects of various biodiesel fuels on specific fuel and compounding of problems with the addition of kerosene. To begin, several base fuels were tested based on random selection from available typical winter grade diesel fuel suppliers in the Midwest USA. Full fuel analyses were ran on all of the fuels available. Three different regular grade winter base diesel fuels from three different refinery sources were chosen for the testing based on their respective differences in base Cloud Point temperatures.
Five different B-100 biodiesel products from different manufacturers were chosen for testing in this program:
(a) a traditionally processed soybean oil-based biodiesel product
(b) a distilled soybean oil-based biodiesel product
(c) a canola oil-based biodiesel product
(d) a tallow oil-based biodiesel product
(e) a palm oil-based biodiesel product.
The above biodiesel production products were sourced from currently available stocks manufactured by USA biodiesel plants. No additional processing was undertaken on the biodiesel products and each was added to the base diesel fuels in an ?as received? condition at typical laboratory ambient room temperatures.
The goal of the study was to achieve a minus 40 degree F CFPP for B-5 diesel fuel. That is usually a target number for extreme negative temperatures in the state of Minnesota where a B-5 diesel fuel has been mandated since 2009.
Kerosene (K-1) was the only product available for many years that worked to winterize diesel fuels, so the study began by testing various kerosene mixtures with a final B-5 biodiesel blend. Biodiesel blends were tested with 30%, 40% and 50% K-1 in final B-5 blends. The study pointed out that there is very little improvement in the CFPP (usually 2 - 4 degrees F) when the K-1 is increased from 30% to 50% and with one exception the CFPP?s did not come close to the goal of -40 CFPP.
The base diesel fuels (without bio content) were each treated with one of Amalgamated, Inc.?s custom formulated winter additive formulations for biodiesel fuels to demonstrate the viability of these additives to effectively lower the CFPP of ?non-bio content? diesel fuels. The particular Amalgamated, Inc. winter biodiesel fuel additive chosen for testing (AMAL-030110-CFI/S/C) was not specifically formulated to provide the optimum CFPP results in these particular base diesel fuels. The additive did, however, work effectively to lower the CFPP in all three base diesel fuels although one of the fuels proved harder to treat and would require a higher dosage rate to completely achieve the goal of -40 F CFPP on all three fuels.
Several different custom formulated Amalgamated, Inc. winter additive products and commercially available chemistries were evaluated on each of the B-5 biodiesel fuel blends. The study found that the tallow oil-based biodiesel and palm oil-based biodiesel products were much harder to treat. The test results indicated the same custom formulated Amalgamated, Inc. winter biodiesel additive AMAL-030110-CFI/S/C used to treat the three base diesel fuels alone could also be used to treat the two soybean oil based biodiesel fuels and the canola oil based biodiesel fuel in a B-5 biodiesel fuel. A CFPP 0f -27 to -39 was achieved without the addition of any kerosene. The treat rate for this additive would need to be varied on these biodiesel blends depending on the base fuel used to make the B-5 blend.
It was also determined that the custom formulated Amalgamated, Inc. winter biodiesel additive AMAL-030110-CFI/S/C can be used to treat a fuel composed of 95 percent kerosene and either of the two soybean oil based biodiesel fuels or the canola oil based biodiesel fuel for the producers, distributors and dealers that want to store their kerosene in blended form.
While tallow oil-based biodiesel and palm oil-based biodiesel products were found harder to treat, test results indicated the custom formulated Amalgamated, Inc. winter biodiesel additive AMAL-061410-CFI/P-B can be used to treat the tallow and the palm oil based biodiesel fuels. While this additive significantly reduces the CFPP of the untreated B-5 blend, it may be necessary to add kerosene to get the lowest CFPP rating possible. The same treat rate can be used with each of the biodiesel fuels when these fuels are blended with differing amounts of kerosene.
The study in this respect indicates clearly that B-5 biodiesel products from various feedstocks (soybean oils, canola, tallow and palm oil) can be successfully treated with the right custom formulated additives in order to lower the CFPP temperatures to acceptable levels. While the specific additive product formulation and the additive treat rates may vary depending on the base fuel and particular bio product used, the finished fuel blend operability can be effectively improved.
It is also evident from the testing that no one fuel additive product can be used to effectively achieve the desired performance results in all diesel fuels and with all types of bio product content. It is also quite evident that simply blending kerosene into a biodiesel fuel blend (even at 30 to 50 percent) will not necessarily lower the CFPP significantly. And, as is commonly known, these higher kerosene blend amounts will lower BTU content which will reduce fuel economy and may not improve the winter operability parameters to acceptable levels.
Amalgamated, Inc. has extensive experience as a custom blender of distillate (diesel) fuel additives for all industries. Its independent status affords the unique opportunity to source any and all commercially available chemistries from different manufacturers worldwide. This ability plus its unique computer blending system and virtually unlimited additive blending capacity allows the knowledgeable staff of Amalgamated, Inc. to offer unmatched additive product performance capabilities for any type of distillate fuel.
- Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends Present Many Issues Jan 2010
: The Official Site of the National Biodiesel Board.